The runoff curve number method for the estimation of direct runoff from storm rainfall is well established in hydrologic engineering and environmental impact analyses. Its popularity is rooted in its convenience, its simplicity, its authoritative origins, and its responsiveness to four readily grasped catchment properties: soil type, land use/treatment, surface condition, and antecedent condition.
The method was developed in 1954 by the USDA Soil Conservation Service (Rallison 1980), and is described in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) National Engineering Hand-book Section 4: Hydrology (NEH-4) ( The method's credibility and acceptance has suffered, however, due to its origin as agency methodology, which effectively isolated it from the rigors of peer review. Other than the information contained in NEH-4, which was not intended to be exhaustive (Rallison and Cronshey 1979), no complete account of the method's foundations is available to date, despite some recent noteworthy attempts (Rallison 1980; Chen 1982; Miller and Cronshey 1989). In the four decades that have elapsed since the method's inception, the increased availability of computers has led to the use of complex hydrologic models, many of which incorporate the curve number method. Thus, the question naturally arises: What is the status of the curve number method in a postulated hierarchy of hydrologic abstraction models? (Miller and Cronshey 1989; Rallison and Miller 1982). Has it matured into general acceptance and usage? Or, as some of its critics suggest, is it now obsolete, a remnant of outdated technology, and in need of overhaul or outright replacement? (Smith and Eggert 1978; Van Mullem 1989). An effective overhaul of the method would require a clearer understanding of its properties than is currently available (Woodward 1991; Woodward and Gburek 1992). An outright replacement, if one were to be developed, is likely to forego part or all of the extensive data on hydrologic soil groups and land use/treatment classes that has been assembled for most of the United States (Miller and Cronshey 1989). More than 4,000 soils in the United States have been given a hydrologic soil group (Rallison 1980). Moreover, a replacement or overhaul could not avoid relying on many of those same features that are now part of the curve number method. Therefore, it has become necessary to examine the curve number method, to shed additional light on its foundations, and to delineate its strengths and weaknesses, so that the method may continue to be used by practitioners without fear of an impending demise. Thus, the objectives of this paper are the following: 1. To critically examine the curve number method, 2. To clarify its conceptual and empirical basis, 3. To delineate its capabilities, limitations, and uses, and 4. To identify areas of research in runoff curve number methodology.
Over the years, the conceptual basis of the curve number
method has been the object of both support and criticism. A
conceptual model shares the simplicity of empirical models
and the wider applicability of the more rigorous physically
based models (Dooge 1977). Being conceptual, the runoff
curve number method is simple, and this is at the root of its
popularity. On the other hand, it is precisely for this reason
that the runoff curve number method has not fared well among
the supporters of alternative models, which include the physically
based models (Smith 1976). Branson et. al. (1962, 1981), among others, have argued that the simpler conceptual models are not necessarily inferior to the more complex physically based models. The latter may do a good job of describing the physical processes, but this is usually at the expense of the chemical and biological aspects. In many instances, processes such as surface crusting, clay shrinkage and swelling, entrapped gases, root structure and decay, and soil macro- and microfauna may be of such importance as to largely invalidate a strictly physical approach to infiltration modeling (Le Bissonnais and Singer 1993).
The curve number method is an infiltration loss model, although it may also account for interception and surface storage losses through its initial abstraction feature. As originally developed, the method is not intended to account for evaporation and evapotranspiration (long-term losses).
An infiltration loss model can be either lumped or distributed.
The lumped model aggregates spatial and temporal variations
into a calculation of the total infiltration depth for a
given storm depth and drainage area. The distributed model
describes instantaneous and/or local infiltration rates, from
which a total infiltration depth is eventually obtained by suitable
integration in time and space. The curve number method
was originally developed as a lumped model (spatial and temporal),
used to convert storm rainfall depth into direct runoff
volume. To this date, it is used primarily as a temporally
lumped model in the manner specified by the NEH-4 handbook
(SCS 1985). However, a few investigators, notably Smith
(1976), Aron The relative advantages of distributed modeling versus lumped modeling are not easily determined. With regard to infiltration capacities, the spatial and temporal variability that prevails in almost all practical settings does not usually favor the distributed approach, unless the nature of this variability can be specifically incorporated into the model, which is not a small task (Miller and Cronshey 1989). Disregarding this variability, or not accounting for it in a realistic way, amounts in a real sense to lumping. Therefore, the lumped models owe their existence to our inability to properly account for the intrinsic variability of natural phenomena. What this means in practice is that a lumped model is not necessarily bad. Rather, that it is a practical way to substitute for the more complex distributed process while attempting to preserve the main features of the prototype. A measurement of infiltration rate, or infiltration capacity, as accurate as it may be, can only describe the rate at the point of measure (Miller and Cronshey 1989). Extrapolation to a larger area is tantamount to lumping. In fact, a lumped infiltration depth is a statement of a spatially and temporally averaged infiltration rate (however small the sample plot), with all the advantages and disadvantages that this implies. The advantage is that the method preserves the average features of the phenomena. The disadvantage is that the method does not specifically describe the spatial and/or temporal variability. Nevertheless, a few interpretations of the curve number method in terms of the spatial distribution of loss depths have been developed (Hawkins 1982; Hawkins and Cundy 1982).
In practice, an acceptable amount of lumping is a function
of problem scale. For small-scale problems, for example, plots
measured in square feet or acres (square meters or hectares),
an attempt to ascertain the spatial and temporal variability
of infiltration capacity may be justified by detailed field measurements.
However, as the scale increases to hundreds of
hectares and tens of square kilometers, the practical inability
to collect increasing amounts of infiltration data makes lumping
an absolute necessity in infiltration modeling. Sooner or
later, a certain amount of spatial averaging has to be introduced.
Furthermore, considering that spatial averaging is implicit
in the nature of rainfall data at any scale, a strong case
is made for lumping as a de
The conversion of rainfall to runoff is the centerpiece of surface water modeling. An elementary expression of conservation of mass is:
where
The quantification of hydrologic abstractions can be a complex task. These fall into five categories: Interception storage in a rural setting, by vegetation foliage, stems, and litter and in an urban setting, by cultural features of the landscape, Surface storage in ponds, puddles, and other usually small temporary storage locations, Infiltration to the subsurface to feed and replenish soil moisture, interflow, and ground-water flow, Evaporation from water bodies such as lakes, reservoirs, streams, and rivers as well as from moisture on bare ground, and Evapotranspiration from all types of vegetation.
Of these five types of hydrologic abstractions, infiltration is the most important for storm analysis (short term). Evaporation and evapotranspiration are the most important for seasonal or annual yield evaluations (long term). The remaining two losses (interception and surface storage) are usually of secondary importance.
The curve number method is an infiltration loss model;
therefore, its applicability is restricted to modeling storm losses.
Barring appropriate modifications, the method should not be
used to model the long-term hydrologic response of a catchment.
Nevertheless, it is recognized that the method has been
used in several long-term hydrologic simulation models developed
in the past two decades (Williams and LaSeur 1976;
Huber Ponce and Shetty (1995) have recently developed a conceptual model of a catchment's annual water balance. The model accomplishes the sequential separation of (1) annual precipitation into surface runoff and wetting; and (2) wetting into baseflow and vaporization. Ponce and Shetty's model draws on a concept similar to that of the runoff curve number. However, for a given site, the value of the annual retention parameter bears no resemblance to that of the conventional curve number method.
To clarify the basis of the curve number method, we review here the processes of surface runoff generation. Surface runoff is generated by a variety of surface and near-surface flow processes, of which some of the most important are: Hortonian overland flow, Saturation overland flow, Throughflow processes, Partial-area runoff, Direct channel interception, and Surface phenomena, such as crust development, hydrophobic soil layers, and frozen ground.
Hortonian overland flow describes the process that takes place when rainfall rate exceeds infiltration capacity, usually at the beginning of a storm (or season), when the soil profile is likely to be on the dry side. The rate difference (rainfall rate minus infiltration capacity) is the effective rainfall rate that is converted to surface runoff. Saturation overland flow describes the process that takes place after the soil profile has become saturated, either from antecedent rainfall events or from a sufficient volume of rainfall within the same event. At this point, any additional rainfall, regardless of intensity, will be converted into surface runoff. Saturation overland flow usually occurs during an infrequent storm, or toward the end of a particularly wet season, when the soil is likely to be already wet from prior storms.
The concept of partial-area runoff developed from the recognition
that runoff estimates were improved by assuming
that only rainfall on a small and fairly constant part of each
drainage basin is able to contribute to direct runoff (Kirkby
and Chorley 1967). Thus, partial-area runoff can be interpreted
as a combination of throughflow in the upper hillslopes
and saturation overland flow in the lower hillslopes (Chorley
1978; Branson Direct channel interception refers to the runoff that originates from rainfall falling directly into the channels. This mode of surface runoff generation may be important in dense channel networks and certain humid bases, where direct channel interception may be the primary source of streamflow (Hawkins 1973).
Surface phenomena includes processes such as crust development,
hydrophobic soil layers, and frozen ground, which
render the soil surface impermeable, promoting surface runoff.
For instance, a surface crust may develop following splash
erosion in a denuded watershed, adversely affected by human
activities or a natural hazard such as fire. Under a specific
set of circumstances, including soil type and texture, the silt
entrained by splash erosion may deposit on the surface and
create a thin crust that eventually reduces the infiltration rate
to a negligible level. Thus, any additional rainfall will be
converted to surface runoff. This mode of surface runoff generation
is typical of semiarid environments, where large
amounts of surface runoff may take place even though the
underlying soil profile, below a relatively thin veneer, remains
substantially dry ("Influences" 1940;
The origins of the curve number methodology can be traced back to the thousands of infiltrometer tests carried out by SCS in the late 1930s and early 1940s. The intent was to develop basic data to evaluate the effects of watershed treatment and soil conservation measures on the rainfall-runoff process. A major catalyst for the development and implementation of the runoff curve number methodology was the passage of the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of August 1954. Studies associated with small watershed project planning were expected to require a substantial improvement in hydrologic computation within SCS (Rallison 1980).
Sherman (1942, 1949) had proposed plotting direct runoff
versus storm rainfall. Building on this idea. Mockus (1949)
proposed that estimates of surface runoff for ungauged watersheds
could be based on information on soils, land use,
antecedent rainfall, storm duration, and average annual temperature.
Furthermore, he combined these factors into an
empirical parameter
Andrews (unpublished report, 1954), using infiltrometer
data from Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana, developed
a graphical procedure for estimating runoff from rainfall for
several combinations of soil texture, type and amount
of cover, and conservation practices. The association was referred
to as a
Mockus empirical The runoff depth *Q*is bounded in the range 0 ≤*Q*≤*P*, assuring its stability.As rainfall depth *P*grows unbounded (*P*→ ∞), the actual retention (*P*-*Q*) asymptotically approaches a constant value*S*. This constant value, referred to in NEH-4 as "potential maximum retention," and here simply as "potential retention," characterizes the watershed's potential for abstracting and retaining storm moisture and, therefore, its direct runoff potential.A runoff equation relates *Q*to*P*, and a curve parameter*CN*, in turn, relates to*S*.Estimates of CN are based on: (1) hydrologic soil group; (2) land use and treatment classes; (3) hydrologic surface condition; and (4) antecedent moisture condition.
The method assumes a proportionality between retention and runoff, as follows:
in which
In a typical case, a certain amount of rainfall, referred to
as "initial abstraction," is abstracted as interception, infiltration,
and surface storage before runoff begins. In the curve number method,
this initial abstraction P in Eq. 3 to yield:
Solving for
which is valid for Q = 0 otherwise. With initial abstraction included in Eq. 4, the
actual retention P - Q asymptotically approaches a constant
value S + l, as rainfall grows unbounded.
_{α}
Equation 5 has two parameters: l and _{α}S was suggested [SCS (1985),
and earlier versions]:
in which λ = initial abstraction ratio.
Equation 6 was justified on the basis of measurements in watersheds
less than 10 acres in size (SCS 1985). While there
was considerable scatter in the data, NEH-4 reported that
50% of the data points lay within the limits 0.095 ≤ λ ≤ 0.38
[SCS (1985), and earlier versions]. This led SCS to adopt a
standard value of the initial abstraction ratio λ = 0.2. However,
values varying in the range With λ = 0.2 in Eq. 6, Eq. 5 becomes:
subject to
Equation 7 now contains only one parameter, potential retention
where 1,000 and 10 are arbitrarily chosen constants having the same
units as
A
Substituting Eq. 8 into Eq. 7, the equation relating direct runoff
subject to Equation 5 can be expanded to yield (Chen 1976; Hawkins 1978b):
This equation reveals that as potential runoff grows unbounded
( P - l - _{α}Q), asymptotically approaches
potential retention S. This is the basic tenet of the curve number
method, that is, the asymptotic behavior of actual retention
toward potential retention for sufficiently large values of potential
runoff. Note that this behavior properly simulates the
saturation overland flow mode of runoff generation. In this
connection, Chen (1975, 1976, 1982) has derived an infiltration
equation based on the curve number method, and related
it to the Holtan infiltration equation, which explicitly accounts
for available soil storage (Holtan et. al. 1975).
In practice, there are some situations where the storm rainfall-runoff
relationship does not follow
have been formulated (Fogel and Duckstein 1970; Hawkins
1942), but the problem remains to determine the empirical
coefficient P - l - _{α}Q → ∞), simulating the capacity
for infinite storage, that is, infinite potential retention. This
same feature is shared by the classical infiltration formulas
of Green and Ampt, Horton, and Phillip, a situation that has
led to their being described as bottomless, that is, able to
simulate the Hortonian overland flow mode of runoff generation.
On the other hand, the curve number method has a
finite value of storage S for all curve numbers, excluding the
special case of CN = 0, which is only a theoretical limit, and
not used in practice.
The humble empirical beginnings of the curve number
method in no way detract from its distinctive conceptual basis.
Indeed, it is only under a conceptual modeling framework
that we are able to discern why the retention and runoff ratios
ought to be equal (Eq. 3). Equality of these ratios leads to
a conceptual model where the curve number is the
A conceptual model works in the mean, implying that there
is room for some variability. The effect of the spatial variability of storm and watershed properties, The effect of the temporal variability of the storm, that is, the storm intensity, The quality of the measured data, that is, the *P*-*Q*sets moisture, andThe effect of antecedent rainfall and associated soil moisture.
The latter was recognized very early as the primary or tractable source of the variability, and thus, the concept of antecedent moisture condition (AMC) originated (SCS 1985). More recently, the same concept has been referred to as the antecedent runoff condition (ARC) to denote a shift of emphasis from soil moisture to runoff ("Urban" 1986).
The original-handbook runoff curve numbers were developed
from recorded rainfall-runoff data, where hydrologic
soil group, land use/treatment class, and surface condition
were known.
To account for this variability, the The curve number lying in the middle of the distribution is the median curve number, corresponding to AMC 2 (average runoff potential). This is the standard curve number given in the SCS and other applicable tables (SCS 1985). The low value is the dry curve number, of AMC 1 (lowest runoff potential). The high value is the wet curve number, of AMC 3 (highest runoff potential).
NEH-4 contains a conversion table (Table 10.1) listing corresponding
AMC 1 and AMC 3
with
with
These equations are applicable in the range 55 ≤ Substitution of Eq. 13 and Eq. 14 into Eq. 8 leads to:
with
with
The one-to-one relationship between
In this role, site moisture per se acts as a surrogate for all
other sources of variability, beyond that which could be
attributed to soil, land use/treatment, and surface condition.
Hjelmfelt What level of AMC should be used in a given case? For this purpose, NEH-4 (SCS 1985) shows the appropriate AMC level based on the total 5-day antecedent rainfall, for dormant and growing season (Table 4.2: "Seasonal Rainfall Limits for AMC"). This table was developed using data from an unspecified location, and subsequently was adopted for general use (Miller and Cronshey 1989). Unfortunately, the table does not account for regional differences or scale effects. An antecedent period longer than 5 days would probably be required for larger watersheds. Echoing this concern, SCS has recently deleted Table 4.2 from the new version of Chapter 4, NEH-4, released in 1993. In practice, a determination of AMC is left to the user, who must evaluate whether a certain design situation warrants either AMC 1, AMC 2, or AMC 3. It is understood that AMC 2 represents a typical design situation. A choice of AMC 1 results in lesser runoff volume, whereas greater runoff results from a choice of AMC 3. Design manuals specify the AMC choice as a function of return period, with AMC level increasing with return period. For example, the Hydrology Manual (1986) of Orange County, California, specifics AMC 1 for 2- and 5-yr storms, AMC 2 for 10-, 25-, and 50-yr storms, and AMC 3 for 100-yr storms. Likewise, the Hydrology Manual (1985) of San Diego County. California, specifies AMC values varying between 1.5 and 3.0 (in increments of 0.5) for a range of design frequencies (5-150 yr) and four climate regions: coast. foothills, mountains, and desert. While SCS does not endorse the use of fractional AMC levels (Rallison and Cronshey 1979), the practice exists and should be acknowledged.
Since the method's inception, several investigators have
attempted to determine runoff curve numbers from small watershed
rainfall-runoff data. The objective has been either to
verify the
For a given
There are several ways to select the
In the absence of a long annual flood series, particularly
in semiarid regions, some investigators have chosen to use
less selective criteria for candidate storm events, including
events of return period less than 1 yr (Woodward 1973; Hawkins 1984).
This choice results in considerably more data for
analysis, as well as slightly different
Another approach to determine curve numbers from data
is the frequency-matching method (Hjelmfelt 1980). The storm
rainfall and direct runoff depths are sorted separately, and
then realigned on a rank-order basis to form seemingly desirable
The SCS runoff curve number has been applied in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, its expression in SI units is necessary. Likewise, geographic and other differences may dictate that the initial abstraction ratio λ be relaxed to the range validated by local experience, say 0.0 ≤ λ ≤ 0.3. In SI units, Eq. 10 converts to:
in which To obtain the runoff curve number equation for a variable λ, Eqs. 6 and 8 are substituted into Eq. 5 to yield (Ponce 1989):
which is subject to the restriction that Equation 17 is applicable only for the standard value of initial abstraction λ = 0.2. For λ = 0:
In general, for λ > 0 (Chen 1982):
There is a growing body of literature on the curve number
method (Bosznay 1989; Hjelmfelt 1991; Hawkins 1993; Steenhuis It is a simple, predictable, and stable conceptual method for the estimation of direct runoff depth based on storm rainfall depth, supported by empirical data. It relies on only one parameter, the runoff curve number CN, which varies as a function of four major runoff-producing watershed properties: Hydrologic soil group: A, B, C, and D, Land use and treatment classes: agricultural, range, forest, and, more recently, urban ("Urban" 1986), Hydrologic surface condition of native pasture: poor, fair, and good, and Antecedent moisture condition, a surrogate for other sources of variability, including soil moisture: 1, 2, and 3.
It is the only agency methodology that features readily grasped and reasonably well-documented environmental inputs (soil, land use/treatment, surface condition, and antecedent moisture condition). It is a well established method, having been widely accepted for use in the United States and other countries.
While it is theoretically possible for the its numbers to
span the range 0-100, practical design values validated by
experience are more likely to be in the range 40-98, with
few exceptions (Van Mullem 1989). This is a significant advantage,
because it restricts the method's only parameter to
a relatively narrow range. Viewed in this light, it is seen that
estimating a design
Perceived disadvantages of the The method was originally developed using regional data, mostly from the midwestern United States, and has since been extended by way of practice to the entire United States and other countries. Some caution is recommended for its use in other geographic or climatic regions. Local studies and related experience should be substituted for the U.S. nationwide *CN*tables where appropriate.In some instances, particularly for the lower curve numbers and/or rainfall depths, the method may be very sensitive to curve number and antecedent condition (Hawkins 1975; Bondelid *et. al.*1982; Ponce 1989). This is not necessarily a weak point, since it may be a reflection of the natural variability; there is, however, a lack of clear guidance on how to vary antecedent condition.The method does best in agricultural sites, for which it was originally intended. Its applicability has since been extended to urban sites ("Urban" 1986). The method rates fairly in applications to range sites, and generally does poorly in applications to forest sites (Hawkins 1984, 1993). The implication here is that the runoff curve number (as developed by SCS) is better suited for storm rainfall-runoff estimates in streams with negligible baseflow, that is, those for which the ratio of direct runoff to total runoff is close to one. Typically, this is the case of streams of first and second order in subhumid and humid regions, and of ephemeral streams in arid and semiarid regions. The method has no explicit provision for spatial scale effects. For example, Simanton *et. al.*(1973) have shown that curve numbers for areas less than 560 acres (227 ha) in southeastern Arizona tend to decrease with increasing watershed size, reflecting the substantial role of channel transmission losses in this semiarid region. In the absence of clear guidelines, the runoff curve number is assumed to apply to small and midsize catchments, comparable in size to those that would normally fall within SCS scope. Without catchment subdivision and associated channel routing, its application to large catchments (say, greater than 100 sq mi, or 250 sq km) should be viewed with caution.The method fixes the initial abstraction ratio at λ = 0.2. At first this appears to be an advantage, since it effectively reduces the number of parameters to one. In general, however, λ could be interpreted as a regional parameter to enhance the method's responsiveness to a diversity of geologic and climatic settings (Bosznay 1989; Ramasastri and Seth 1985). Additional research is needed to shed light on this issue.
Having reviewed its foundations, its conceptual/empirical basis, and its range of applicability, we now address the central issue of this paper: Has the runoff curve number method reached its maturity? Maturity implies usefulness, acceptance with faults acknowledged, understanding of its capabilities, and continued growth with possible eventual refinements. We believe the method has now reached maturity on these counts: The method is widely understood and accepted for what it is: a conceptual model supported with empirical data to estimate direct runoff volume from infrequent storm rainfall depth, lumped to circumvent the often cumbersome description of spatial and temporal variability of infiltration and other losses. It is the method of choice by practicing engineers and hydrologists for soil and water conservation planning and design, and flood control design. The method is featured in most of the hydrologic computer models in current use, in the United States and abroad. Its practicality as a design method is beyond doubt. A replacement method, if one is developed, would have to clearly prove its superiority. None of the existing point infiltration formulas, such as those of Horton, Philip, or Green and Ampt, are beyond reproach. An apparent limitation is that they allow an infinite amount of soil moisture storage. More importantly, however, is the criticism that none of these methods can claim a holistic approach, that is, one that accounts for the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the phenomena, and that includes all relevant hydrologic processes. In many instances, the biological aspects of infiltration may be subject to such spatial diversity (the effect of vegetative subsurface features such as roots and root decay, and soil macro- and microfauna) as to defy description by even the most complex of models.
The runoff curve number method owes its popularity among hydrology practitioners to its simplicity, predictability, and stability, and to its support by a major U.S. federal agency. In the six decades that have elapsed since its inception, questions have arisen as to its nature and beginnings. Its adoption and use throughout the United States and other countries, far beyond the scope intended by its original developers, have demanded that the method be subject to close scrutiny.
The method is a conceptual model of hydrologic abstraction
of storm rainfall, supported by empirical data. Its objective
is to estimate direct runoff volume from storm rainfall depth,
based on a curve number The advantages of the method are: (1) its simplicity; (2) its predictability; (3) its stability; (4) its reliance on only one parameter; and (5) its responsiveness to major runoff-producing watershed properties. Perceived disadvantages are: (1) its marked sensitivity to the choice of curve number; (2) the absence of clear guidance on how to vary antecedent moisture; (3) the method's varying accuracy for different biomes; (4) the absence of an explicit provision for spatial scale effects; and (5) the fixing of the initial abstraction ratio at λ = 0.2, preempting a regionalization based on geologic and climatic setting.
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λ = initial abstraction ratio. |

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